Other articles where Nitration is discussed: nitro compound: …made by the reaction, called nitration, between nitric acid and an organic compound. From this we may conclude that the nitration reagent is more reactive and less selective than the halogenation reagents. Both sulfonation and nitration yield water as a by-product. Both sulfonation and nitration yield water as a by-product. Electrophilic Substitution Reaction Between Benzene And Nitric Acid Some of the other uses of Benzene include making plastics, synthetic fibers, rubber lubricants, dyes, resins, detergents, drugs and more. Summary. Gas phase nitration of benzene: deactivation and regeneration of the catalysts The choice of binary oxide catalytic systems MoO 3 /support, WO 3 /support to be used in the study of gas phase nitration, was based on all high catalytic features of these materials [19] , … Nitration of Methyl Benzoate Johnson, Chad Philip; T/Th Lab, 8:00am Submitted February 23 rd, 2012 Introduction Benzene containing compounds are known to have special properties that cause them to react differently than other molecules. Nitration of aromatic compounds, such as benzene or toluene, is commonly effected by treating them with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids at temperatures of 100° C or lower. In this reaction, the meta position is preferred. The conjugated system of dienes in aromatic rings provide extra Nitrobenzene is a deactivator. This reaction proceeds via the formation of an electrophilic nitronium ion (NO 2 +) from nitric acid (HNO 3), resulting from proton transfer from sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4). The nitration of benzene is an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, in which a nitro group (-NO 2) is introduced onto a benzene ring. So we have to heat the nitration mixture more than benzene nitration. Amol A Kulkarni. So furthermore nitration is hard. Resource-Efficient Technologies 2016, 2 (3) , 118-125. Following the nucleophilic attack of benzene onto the nitronium ion, re-aromatization … As for example Benzene reacts with concentrated nitric acid in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst, and form nitrobenzene. The molecular formula of benzene is C6H6. Popular Uses of Benzene. Benzene nitration is useful to prepare more organic compounds such as aniline, phenol, benzene diazonium salt. Nitration of benzene firstly involves the formation of a very powerful electrophile, the nitronium ion, which is linear. Benzene is a colorless liquid that was first discovered by Michael Faraday in 1825. Benzene & Its Derivatives Chapter 22 Organic Lecture Series 2 Reactions of Benzene The most characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds is substitution at a ring carbon: + + Chlorobenzene Halogenation: H Cl2 Cl FeCl3 HCl + + Nitrobenzene Nitration: HNOHNO3 2 H2 SO4 H2 O These temperatures are not high enough for… Review and cite NITRATION OF BENZENE protocol, troubleshooting and other methodology information | Contact experts in NITRATION OF BENZENE to get answers Halogenation of Benzene, Nitration of Benzene, Sulfonation of Benzene and Alkylation and Acylation of Benzene are some various chemical reactions of Benzene.

As temperature increases there is a greater chance of getting more than one nitro group, -NO 2 , substituted onto the ring. Nitration of Benzene. Also, as noted earlier, toluene undergoes nitration about 25 times faster than benzene, but chlorination of toluene is over 500 times faster than that of benzene. From this we may conclude that the nitration reagent is more reactive and less selective than the halogenation reagents. Nitration is an example of electrophilic aromatic substitution; the electrophile is a nitronium ion, 1, which displaces a hydrogen ion from the benzene ring.