known as mercury speciation, which can have considerable influence on selection of mercury control approaches. Using fly ash, a byproduct of these plants, as a sorbent to remove mercury has proven to be difficult. Has authorized more than 30 Chinese patents. Coal ash is the product left after coal is combusted or burned. Mercury (Hg) is one of the elements of special environmental concern. The transformation is affected by the coal types, flue gas components, flue gas temperature, combustion atmosphere, coal ash properties, etc. The remnants of burned coal include arsenic, boron, lead and mercury, which are known carcinogens and damage organs, among other health effects. When mercury is inhaled or ingested various health effects can occur such as vision impairment, seizures, numbness, memory loss and sleeplessness. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipment, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or fabric filter (FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) device are good at Hg0 oxidation, particulate mercury (Hgp) removal, and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) capture, respectively. WASHINGTON — The Trump administration is expected to roll back an Obama-era regulation meant to limit the leaching of heavy metals like … Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Fly ash or flue ash, also known as pulverised fuel ash in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases. Mercury in the coal of coal-fired power plants is concentrated in the by-products of desulfurization process, and it is widely used as an additive in cement, building materials and other industries. In the field of mercury and arsenic removal from flue gas, Yang et al. Source: “Coal Energy Systems”, Bruce G. Miller, 2005, p.109 The mercury emitted from power plants is measured as three forms: Elemental, Hgo Oxidized, Hg+2 Condensed on ash particles, Hg p In the natural environment mercury can go through a series of chemical transformations to convert to a highly toxic form, methylmercury, CH 3Hg which is Mercury input loadings (in pounds of mercury per 10 12 British thermal units (lb Hg /1012 Btu)) of in-ground coal for selected U.S. coal-producing regions. Current research areas: Mercury and trace elements removal technologies for coal combustion, solid waste recycling, circulating fluidized bed combustion and gasification, numerical simulation of combustion process, slurry transport and atomization, integrated removal of pollutants from power station boilers, etc. The burning process concentrates the heavy metals in coal, such as arsenic, lead and mercury, making the ash a potentially hazardous substance. Mercury sorption apparatus A continuous cold-vapor mercury generation assembly from a Leeman PS200 automated mercury analyzer was Coal ash is the solid byproduct left over after coal is burned. Shilin Zhao: Male, born in April, 1992. The effects of chlorine, NOx, SO2, H2O, O2 NH3 on elemental mercury (Hg0) homogeneous oxidation and the influence of physical structure properties, unburned carbon, and metal oxides in fly ash as well as flue gas components on Hg0 heterogeneous transformation are systematically reviewed in detail. By comparison of the mercury content of different products, we found that the maximum discharge source of Hg for power plants was fly ash and gypsum, instead of Hg emitted with flue gas through the chimney into the atmosphere. It includes fly ash (fine powdery particles that are carried up the smoke stack and captured by pollution control devices) as well as coarser materials that fall to the bottom of the furnace. Mercury and fly ash. The air pollution control devices (APCDs) in CFPPs also have the mercury co-removal ability besides the conventional pollutants, such as NOx, particulate matter (PM), SO2, and fine PM. In general, mercury in coal is in the forms of sulfide-bound mercury (mainly pyritic mercury, dominant), clay-bound mercury, and organic matter-bound mercury, which are influenced by diagenetic, coalification, and post-diagenetic conditions, etc. Lead: The direct exposure to lead can cause major damage to the nervous system. Modern pollution controls in coal plants capture the fly ash before it becomes airborne. The need for federal action to help ensure protective coal ash disposal was highlighted by large spills near Kingston, TN and Eden, NC which caused widespread environmental and economic damage to nearby waterways and properties. During combustion, the mercury (Hg) in coal is volatilized and converted to elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor in the high temperature regions of coal-fired boilers. Wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) can capture Hg0, Hg2+, and Hgp simultaneously. Being highly volatile (it vaporizes at temperature as low as 150°C; Finkelman, 1981), mercury poses a special problem for electric utilities. We can now add mercury — a potent neurotoxin — to the list of pollutants leaking from some of the coal ash pits. The sampling or analysis principle, sampling requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used on-site mercury sampling methods, namely, Ontarion Hydro Method (OHM), US EPA Method 30B, and Hg-CEMS, are compared. Career: 1991.9–1993.12: Lecturer, Thermal Engineering Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 1993.12–2002.4: Associate Professor, Thermal Engineering Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 1995.8–1996.2: Senior visiting scholar, Korea Energy Research Institute (KIER), Korea; 2001.9–2003.8: Visiting Professor, Institute of Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET), Western Kentucky University, USA; 2002.4–present: Professor, Thermal Engineering Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Publications: Has authored or co-authored (mostly as corresponding author) more than 300 journal papers including more than 150 SCI/EI papers with cites times of 820 and more than 30 international conference papers in energy, environment and chemical engineering areas. Without proper management, these contaminants can pollute waterways, ground water, drinking water, and the air. Experimental 2.1. (2007) reviewed the adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas, and discussed the feasibility and potential of fly ash as an adsorbent for mercury from flue gas. The concentration of mercury in coal samples from the U.S. Geological Survey's COALQUAL database averages 0.17 ppm for in-ground coal in the conterminous United States. There are about 1,400 coal- and oil-fired electric generating units (EGUs) at 600 power plants covered by these standards. Coal ash, also referred to as coal combustion residuals or CCRs, is produced primarily from the burning of coal in coal-fired power plants. One of the regenerable mercury removal adsorbents, the magnetic adsorbent modified by metal oxides or the metal halides, is the most promising sorbent for mercury removal from CFPPs. Mercury transformation in coal combustion includes homogeneous (without fly ash) and heterogeneous (with fly ash) reaction. mercury can be … He has undertaken more than 30 projects entrusted by enterprises. Coal-fired power plants represent the largest source of mercury emissions worldwide. The mercury removal effects, mercury removal mechanism, and/or influencing factors are summarized in detail. Lastly, further works about mercury transformation in coal combustion atmosphere, mercury co-removal by APCDs, the emission in CFPPs, and mercury removal technologies for CFPPs are noted. An MLive series explores coal-ash management in Michigan and what happens when the ash, a form of industrial waste known to contain toxins, escapes into the environment. In the field of mercury and arsenic removal from flue gas, Yang et al. The 1.05 billion tons of coal burned each year in the United States contain 109 tons of mercury, 7884 tons of arsenic, 1167 tons of beryllium, 750 tons of cadmium, 8810 tons of chromium, 9339 tons of nickel, and 2587 tons of selenium. By comparison of the mercury content of different products, we found that the maximum discharge source of Hg for power plants was fly ash and gypsum, instead of Hg emitted with flue gas through the chimney into the atmosphere. In general, the majority of gaseous mercury in bituminous coal-fired boilers is Hg2+. In general, mercury in coal is in the forms of sulfide-bound mercury (mainly pyritic mercury, dominant), clay-bound mercury, and organic matter-bound mercury, which are influenced by diagenetic, coalification, and post-diagenetic conditions, etc. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Regulations for the safe disposal of coal ash, Water regulations on power plant discharges. Co-authored and edited one book. Mercury in some fly ash and gypsum, and in most WFGD and WESP wastewater, is higher than the relevant limits, which needs to be paid attention to during their processing. Coal fly ash is a fine gray powder residue produced by coal-fired power plants and used to make cement. Others may discharge it into a nearby waterway under the plant's water discharge permit. electricity generated from coal dropped 77 percent.ii The majority of mercury waste from coal is now being disposed of on land via coal ash waste where it continues to pose a risk to water quality. Depending on where the coal was mined, coal ash typically contains heavy metals including arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium and selenium, as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, boron, chlorine, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. These values and their comparison to data fro… Hosting research projects: 3 National Key Research & Development Projects (2016); 5 National Natural Science Foundations (2011, 2014, 2016, 2018); 2 National Science and Technology Support Projects (2006, 2012); 5 National “973” Third-Level Projects (1999, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010); 2 National Science and Technology Research Project (1991, 1997); 1 Jiangsu Province Industry, Education and Research Joint Innovation Fund (2013); 2 Jiangsu Environmental Protection Research Project (2011, 2016); 3 National Key Experiment Room Open Fund (2010, 2010, 2011). bound. Coal ash is a powdery residue laced with heavy metals like arsenic, lead, and mercury. The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. It is a dangerous mix of arsenic, lead, mercury and other poisons. For the mercury transformation in oxy-coal combustion, O2 promotes Hg0 oxidation with Cl2 while NO and CO2 inhibit or do not favor that reaction. When we burn coal, that mercury gets released into the atmosphere … Coal naturally contains mercury, a neurotoxin that can damage the nervous system, the brain and other organs. After recalculating into equal energy units, this corresponds to 1.7 to 24.8 lb Hg/1012 Btu, with an average of 9.2 lb Hg/1012 Btu. Education: 1980.9–1984.6: Bachelor of Engineering, Thermal Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China; 1984.9–1987.6: Master of Engineering, Thermal Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China; 1987.9–1991.9: Ph.D. Without proper management, these contaminants can pollute waterways, ground water, drinking water, and the air. Yufeng Duan: Male, born in April, 1963. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Publications: Has published 27 journal papers including 13 SCI (first author) and 5 SCI (co-author) papers with cites times of 140, and 7 international conference papers in energy, environment and chemical engineering areas. Total Hg in the atmospheric deposition was higher during the heating season (0.264 µg/g) than the … Mean values range from 0.07 ppm for coal samples from the Uinta region to 0.24 ppm for samples from the northern Appalachian coal-producing region. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2019.02.001. An official website of the United States government. Mercury transformation in coal combustion includes homogeneous (without fly ash) and heterogeneous (with fly ash) reaction. According to the American Coal Ash Association's Coal Combustion Product Production & Use Survey Report, nearly 130 million tons of coal ash was generated in 2014. Ash that falls to the bottom of the boiler's combustion chamber (commonly called a firebox) is called bottom ash. Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) are considered as the major anthropogenic mercury emission source to the atmosphere, especially for China, India, and the US. The concentrations of mercury in coal samples, bottom ash, fly ash, and gypsum were also measured. Both low levels and high levels of lead exposure can cause harm to the human body. Mercury removal technologies for CFPPs can be divided into pre-combustion (including coal washing technology and mild pyrolysis method), in-combustion (including low-NOx combustion technology, circulating fluidized bed combustion technology, and halogens addition into coal), and post-combustion (including existing commercial SCR catalyst improvement, inhibiting Hg0 re-emission in WFGD, mercury oxidizing catalysts, injecting oxidizing chemicals, carbon-based adsorbents, fly ash, calcium-based adsorbents, and mineral adsorbents) based on the mercury removal position. Without proper management, these contaminants can pollute waterways, groundwater, drinking … The need for federal action to help ensure protective coal ash disposal was highlighted by large spills near Kingston, TN and Eden, NC which caused widespread environmental and economic damage to nearby waterways and … For more information, visit the following Web pages. The amount of fly ash is going up: in 2006, coal plants in the United States produced almost 72 million tons, up 50 percent since 1993. As a result, heavy metals such as mercury are concentrated in what the EPA considers "recycled air pollution control residue." ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A review on mercury in coal combustion process: Content and occurrence forms in coal, transformation, sampling methods, emission and control technologies. Coal Ash: Hazardous to Human Health . SO3 inhibits mercury retention by fly ash while H2O promotes the oxidation. Lead exposure can lead to kidney disease, hearing impairment, high blood pressure, delays in development, swelling of the brain, hemoglobin damage, and male reproductive problems. Based on the results from our study, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Coal ash is a powdery residue laced with heavy metals like arsenic, lead, and mercury. Coal ash contains contaminants like mercury, cadmium and arsenic. Inorganic constituents in coal have a significant effect on almost every aspect of coal utilization as well as its impact on the environment. The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Trace Elements in Coal Ash Many trace elements such as chromium, arsenic, and . Last week, Duke revealed they found mercury in a test well near their Belews Creek plant. Though coal ash is not a federally regulated hazardous waste, the training was required because materials within the ash (like arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury… Mercury, as a global pollutant, has raised worldwide concern due to its high toxicity, long-distance transport, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Is the ash really held in … Coal plants also discharge toxins directly into lakes, rivers and streams. The mercury emission concentration in the reviewed CFPPs of China, South Korea, Poland, the Netherlands, and the US is 0.29–16.3 µg/m3. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the morphology and distribution of mercury (Hg) in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product. The mercury transformation process in SCR, ESP, FF, WFGD, and WESP is also discussed. Studies on mercury in coal combustion process have been carried out for decades, which include content and occurrence forms of mercury in coal, mercury transformation during coal combustion, sampling, co-removal and emission of mercury in CFPPs, mercury removal technologies for CFPPs. Traditional washing reduces mercury content from 0.02 to 0.18 ppm, and from 1.4 to 14.1 lb Hg/1012 Btu on equal energy mercury loading, 5.2 lb Hg/1012 Btu on average. Mercury content in Indiana coals varies from 0.02 to 0.31 ppm, averaging 0.11 ppm. Reusing coal ash can create many environmental, economic, and product benefits including: For more information, visit the coal ash reuse Web page. (2007) reviewed the adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas, and discussed the feasibility and potential of fly ash as an adsorbent for mercury from flue gas. Coal ash is one of the largest types of industrial waste generated in the United States. The inorganic fraction of coal combustion fly ash may sorb mercury through mechanisms distinct from sorption by carbon in the ash. Without proper management, these contaminants can pollute waterways, groundwater, drinking … The mercury levels exceeded more than 10 times that area’s background mercury level in … Coal ash contains mercury, cadmium and arsenic. The remnants of burned coal include arsenic, boron, lead and mercury, which are known carcinogens and damage organs, among other health effects. The average mercury content in the coal from China, the US, and South Africa is 0.20, 0.17, and 0.20 mg/kg, respectively, which is higher than the world's coal average value of 0.1 mg/kg. According to the American Coal Ash Association, coal power plants created 102 million tons of ash in 2018, making it the second-largest source of waste in the US after trash. The EPA mercury rule will therefore translate into a significant requirement for measuring the mercury content of all coal used in power plants. To address the risks from improper disposal and discharge of coal ash, EPA has established national rules for coal ash disposal and is strengthening existing controls on water discharges. Coal Ash. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Current research areas: Transformation, emission, and control of mercury and trace elements from coal combustion. As the flue gas is cooled, a series of complex reactions begin to convert Hg0 to ionic mercury (Hg2+) compounds and/or Hg Mercury: Chronic exposure of mercury from coal ash can cause harm to the nervous system. The results showed that total mercury (HgT) concentrations were higher in level I fly ash (0.304 µg/g) than in level II and level III fly ash and slag (0.142, 0.147, and 0.052 µg/g, respectively). The concentrations of mercury in coal samples, bottom ash, fly ash, and gypsum were also measured. In addition, coal combustion products (CCP), such as coal fly ash will also have to be monitored for mercury, because of its widespread use for the manufacture of concrete products. CO2 increases Hg0 oxidation in the atmosphere of NO and N2. In modern coal-fired power plants, fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitatorsor other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys… Burning coal produces airborne compounds, known as fly ash and bottom ash (collectively referred to as coal ash), which can contain large quantities of heavy metals that settle or wash out of the atmosphere into oceans, streams, and land. Here, we found that the fresh surface of modified fly ash has good adsorption performance, and it declines obviously with time because of unsaturation characteristics on surface. Hgt removal in ESP+WFGD, SCR+ESP+WFGD, SCR+ESP+FF+WFGD, and SCR+ESP+WFGD+WESP is 35.5–84%, 43.8–94.9%, 58.78–73.32%, and 56.59–89.07%, respectively. , the majority of gaseous mercury in coal combustion includes homogeneous ( without fly ash reaction... Hour generated in the field of mercury and arsenic range from 0.07 ppm for coal from. 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